Cannabis and Health, Institute of Medicine, National Academy
of Sciences, 1982. Note: the Committee on Substance Abuse
and Habitual Behavior of the "Cannabis and Health" study had
its part of the final report suppressed when it reviewed the
evidence and recommended that possession of small amounts
of cannabis should no longer be a crime (TIME magazine, July
19, 1982). The two JAMA studies are: Co, B.T., Goodwin, D.W.,
Gado, M., Mikhael, M., and Hill, S.Y.: "Absence of cerebral
atrophy in chronic cannabis users", JAMA, 237:1229-1230, 1977;
and, Kuehnle, J., Mendelson, J.H., Davis, K.R., and New, P.F.J.:
"Computed tomographic examination of heavy cannabis smokers",
JAMA, 237:1231-1232, 1977.
2) See Cannabis and Health, ibid., for information on this
research. See also, Cannabis Reconsidered (1978) by Dr. Lester
3) The Dutch experience is written up in "The Economics of
Legalizing Drugs", by Richard J. Dennis, The Atlantic Monthly,
Vol 266, No. 5, Nov 1990, p. 130. See "A Comparison of Cannabis
Users and Non-users" by Norman Zinberg and Andrew Weil (1971)
for the negative correlation between use of cannabis and use
of alcohol. The 1993 Rand Corporation study is "The Effect
of Cannabis Decriminalization on Hospital Emergency Room Episodes:
1975 - 1978" by Karyn E. Model.
4) See a review of studies and their methodology in "Cannabis
and Immunity", Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol 20(1), Jan-Mar
1988. Studies showing stimulation of the immune system: Kaklamani,
et al., "Hashish smoking and T- lymphocytes", 1978; Kalofoutis
et al., "The significance of lymphocyte lipid changes after
smoking hashish", 1978. The 1988 study: Wallace, J.M., Tashkin,
D.P., Oishi, J.S., Barbers, R.G., "Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte
Subpopulations and Mitogen Responsiveness in Tobacco and Cannabis
Smokers", 1988, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, ibid.
5) The 90% figure comes from Health Consequences of Smoking:
Nicotine Addiction, Surgeon General's Report, 1988. In Health
magazine in an article entitled, "Hooked, Not Hooked" by Deborah
Franklin (pp. 39-52), compares the addictives of various drugs
and ranks cannabis below coffeine. For current information
on cannabis drinks see Working Men and Ganja: Cannabis Use
in Rural Jamaica by M. C. Dreher, Institute for the Study
of Human Issues, 1982, ISBN 0-89727-025-8. For information
on cannabis and actual cancer risk, see Cannabis and Health,
6) For a survey of studies relating to cannabis and highway
accidents see "Cannabis, Driving and Accident Safety", by
Dale Gieringer, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, ibid. The effect
of decriminalization on highway accidents is analyzed in "Do
Youths Substitute Alcohol and Cannabis? Some Econometric Evidence"
by Frank J. Chaloupka and Adit Laixuthai, Nov. 1992, University
of Illinois at Chicago.
7) For information about the Partnership ad, see Jack Herer's
book, The Emperor Wears No Clothes, 1990, p. 74. See also
"Hard Sell in the Drug War", The Nation, March 9, 1992, by
Cynthia Cotts, which reveals that the Partnership receives
a large percentage of its advertizing budget from alcohol,
tobacco, and pharmaceutical companies and is thus disposed
toward exaggerating the risks of cannabis while downplaying
the risks of legal drugs. For information on memory and the
alpha brainwave enhancement effect, see "Cannabis, Memory,
and Perception", by R. L. Dornbush, M.D., M. Fink, M.D., and
A. M. Freedman, M.D., presented at the 124th annual meeting
of the American Psychiatric Association, May 3-7, 1971.
8) See "Cannabis 1988, Old Drug New Dangers, The Potency Question"
by Tod H Mikuriya, M.D. and Michael Aldrich, Ph.D., Journal
of Psychoactive Drugs, ibid.
9) See Cannabis and Health, ibid. Also see "Cannabis, Memory,
and Perception", ibid.
10) The fat solubility of cannabinoids and certain vitamins
is well known. See Cannabis and Health, ibid. For some information
on vitamin A, see "The A Team" in Scientific American, Vol
264, No. 2, February 1991, p. 16.
11) See "Too Many Rodent Carcinogens: Mitogenesis Increases
Mutagenesis", Bruce N. Ames and Lois Swirsky Gold, Science,
Vol 249, 31 August 1990, p. 971.
12) Cannabis and alcohol toxicity is compared in Cannabis
Reconsidered, ibid., p. 227. Yearly alcohol overdoses was
taken from "Drug Prohibition in the United States: Costs,
Consequences, and Alternatives" by Ethan A. Nadelmann, Science,
Vol 245, 1 September 1989, p. 943.