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Irix 6.5 Installation Notes

Section 3 - Installing Software

These are some notes on how to install software on an SGI that is ready for an upgrade to some release of IRIX 6.5.x.  See the Overview notes for additional general information.

These instructions describe the method of installing software using the "inst" program with the machine in maintenance mode which is reached during bootup.  The system is not running Unix in multi-user mode.  This is recommended over using "inst" on a running system since you don't need to install required patches for the "inst" program.

Software can be installed from a local or remote CDROM or in some cases from a remote or local directory. These notes assume that you are using a local CDROM since the machine must be put in firmware mode to load some packages.

See the IRIS Online Books, Owner's Guide, Software Installation Guide, or Installation Instructions pamplet for additional installation information and for instructions on installing additional application programs on a running Unix system.

NOTE: If you started the upgrade with "Section 1- Repartition the System Disk", or "Section 2 - Performing a Clean Install", you may have already performed some of the steps described below.  You may review them, but you probably can skip to "Part B - Installation", Step 10 and continue from there.

Part A - Machine Preparation

  1. Make sure that the machine is properly backed up.
  2. Perform a level 0 backup of the machine that you are going to upgrade. There are several ways to accomplish this task. See theIRIX Online Books for information on Backing Up and Restoring Data.
  3. Files that you will want to set aside (on another machine or second disk) before the upgrade.
  4. Here is a script to archive files before upgrade. It also produces a text file called "System.save" that includes important information about your system that will be needed when you are ready to re-configure your system after the upgrade. Copy the script to your system (with Netscape, right-click on link and select "Save Link As..", with Internet Explorer, right-click on link and select "Save target As..."). Edit the script so it saves files appropriate for your system, then execute it with the command "sh ./save-files.sh".

    Important - Print out a copy of "System.save" to use later on in the upgrade.

    Some may wonder why you should set aside these files if you have a complete backup of your system? It is far easier to ftp these files from another machine or copy them from another local disk than it is to restore them from tape.

    It should also be noted that a separate backup of the /usr/people directory (in addition to the level 0 backup) may ease in the restoration of user files after the operating system has been installed.

Part B - Installation

  1. Shutdown the system. Power off the system.

  3. Attach the CDROM drive if necessary. Power on the drive (if external).

  5. Power on the system.

  7. When the system starts booting up and you see the message "Starting up the system", click the "Stop for Maintenance" button or press <Esc> immediately. This will bring up the Maintenance Menu.

  9. Click the icon for "Install System Software". The menu is replaced by an "Install System Software" screen with four icons.

  11. Click the icon for "Local CD-ROM". On the screen you should see a line like this:
  12. Local SCSI CD-ROM drive <n>
    where <n> is the unit number of the CD-ROM drive.
  13. Click the "Install" button.

  15. Insert the IRIX 6.5.x Installation Tools and Overlays CD into the CD-ROM drive if you haven't done so already.  Use the latest release instead of the base (6.5) release Installation Tools.

  17. After you have inserted the CD into the CD-ROM the light will flash several times. When this has stopped flashing click the "Continue" button. This message appears briefly:
  18. Obtaining Installation Tools
    This message or a similar one is shown:
    Copying Installation tools to disk
    as the miniroot is copied to the swap partition on your workstation. Copying the miniroot takes a while. A status bar indicates the progress of the copy.

    After the miniroot copying is complete you should see the "inst" program come up similar to the following:

    IRIX Release <version #> <cpu type> Version <longversion> System V
    ipg0: missing  Note: These missing messages are normal and do not
    enp0: missing  indicate a problem; one line appears for each device
    fxp0: missing  supported by the kernel, but not used by the system.
    Creating miniroot devices, please wait...
    The system is coming up, please wait... 
    The system is ready.
    Current system date is <date>
    <root_device>   on /root
    Default location of new software is <source>
    If you are a first-time inst user, give the command "help beginner".
    Inst  Main Menu 
     1. from [source ...]            Specify location of software to be installed
     2. open [source ...]            Specify additional software locations
     3. close [source ...]           Close a software distribution location
     4. list [keywords] [names]      Display information about software subsystems
     5. go                           Perform software installation and removal now
     6. install [keywords] [names]   Select subsystems to be installed
     7. remove [keywords] [names]    Select subsystems to be removed
     8. keep [keywords] [names]      Do not install or remove these subsystems
     9. step [keywords] [names]      Interactive mode for install/remove/keep
    10. conflicts [choice ...]       List or resolve installation conflicts
    11. help [topic]                 Get help in general or on a specific word
    12. view ...                     Go to the View Commands Menu
    13. admin ...                    Go to the Administrative Commands Menu
    14. quit                         Terminate software installation
  19. The "inst" program has several commands that control it's operation and allow you to select what software to install or remove. See the "IRIS Software Installation Guide" and "inst" manpages for more information.

    The main commands are:

    	from	prompts for the path from which you are installing the
    		software, usually the CDROM drive (/CDROM/dist). 
    	open	same as "from" but will allow reading additional CD's
    		without closing the clearing the selections already made.
    	list	displays the names of the software packages and indicates
    		whether the version of the software is newer or older.
    	keep	indicates specified software is not to be installed.
    	install	indicates specified software is to be installed.
    		Some generic options are:
    		required - only packages required to operate system
    		prereqs	 - only those packages needed to resolve conflicts
    		default  - only packages marked by SGI as default
    		standard - only upgrades to previously installed packages
    		applicablepatches - all patches that apply to current selections
    	remove	indicates specified software is to be removed from system.
      Enter the following command at the "inst>" prompt:
    	from	(hit return for default path /CDROM/dist)
      If this is the first time you are installing a version of IRIX 6.5, or if
      you are preforming a clean install, you will be prompted to choose which
      "stream" or type of installation you want to perform:
    	1. Place me on the maintenance stream.
    	2. Place me on the feature stream.
    	3. Cancel
      You must choose between 1 or 2.  
      The maintenance stream contains all bug fixes and support for new hardware.
      The feature stream contains everything in the maintenance stream plus new 
      software features.  
      ITC has found that using the maintenance stream is the preferred choice
      and produces the most stable system.
      At the prompt type 1
    The program will read the list of software packages already installed on the system (if any) and then read the list of software packages contained on the CD.

    Before selecting any packages you must read in all distribution CD's. You must eject each CD by pressing the manual eject button on the CD-ROM drive (or if using "inst" on a running system to install additional packages, by opening a unix shell window and typing the command "eject /CDROM"). Then insert the next CD.

    The order of the CD's for complete installation of a new system is:

    1. Installation Tools and Overlays (1 of 2) (latest release 6.5.x)
    2. Overlays (2 of 2)
    3. Foundation 1
    4. Foundation 2
    5. Applications (latest release 6.5.x)
    6. Development Foundation
    7. Development Library
    8. ONC3/NFS
    9. Compiler Execution Environment 7.3
    10. MIPSpro All-Compiler CD (for 6.5 and later)

    Make sure the prompt indicates that the installation is from the /CDROM/dist directory. For example, if the prompt changes to /CDROM/dist/dist6.5 then enter /CDROM/dist. Do not enter "done" until all the CD's have been read. If you do so, you can still read additional CD's but you must use the "open" command each time.

    When all the CD's have been read enter "done".

    When all the CD's have been read in a composite list can be displayed with codes next to each package indicating whether the package on the CD is the same(S=same), newer(U=upgrade), older(D=downgrade) or not installed on the system(N=new). You will now have the opportunity to choose which packages to install or upgrade.


    4. list

  20. ITC has a copy of most of the available SGI documentation on it's NFS file server jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU. It also has some third-party software packages, as well as the demo programs. The following instructions assume that you will set up your machine to share these from the server and not install them on your own machine to save disk space. A note will indicate those parts of the instructions not to follow if you want to have local copies installed on your machine.
      If you are planning to share the SGI documentation from the ITC server
      enter the following commands at the "inst>" prompt (skip for local copy):
    	keep *.man.*
    	keep *.books.*
      Note: if you are low on disk space you might want to remove old versions
    	remove *.man.*
    	remove *.books.*
      You can add any packages that you want installed with the command:
    	install package-name
    Here is a list of recommended packages to be installed.

    When you are satisfied with the list of packages (you can check by issuing the "list" command and viewing the list of packages and the operation code next to each) you can start actual installation by entering the following command.

      At the "inst>" prompt type: "go"
  21. If there are any conflicts they will now be listed. You must decide from the choices listed how to resolve the conflict. You are usually given the choice of not installing a requested package or installing the missing prerequisite product. You choose which option you want by typing your choice at the "inst>" prompt. If you have several conflicts you can enter your choices all at once. For example to choose 1a, 2b, and 3b type:
    	conflicts 1a 2b 3b
      When all conflicts are resolved, you will see this message:
    	No Conflicts
      To resume the installation, type: "go"
      Warning: You must resolve all errors, do not turn the system off or press the
               reset button.  This could result in a system that will not boot.
      You will be prompted to insert specific CD's as "inst" requires them to load
      the software packages.
      When "inst" indicates that the installation is finished type: "quit"
      Several lines of messages will be displayed while reconfiguration is 
      proceding.  You will eventually be prompted to reboot, confirm with: "yes"
    The system will reboot and then display the login window.

  22. The installation portion of the upgrade is now complete. If you performed a minor upgraded on an existing system which did not require a clean install or did not have to be repartitioned (for example from 6.5.3 to 6.5.6) you can skip the remaining sections though you may want to review the information in Part C - Configuration, Section 2. Security to make sure your system is protected.

Part C - Configuration

1. Basic System Files, Directories and Links

Follow these instructions to configure your system.
- Login as root (superuser).  

- If it's a new system, set the password for root: 
	passwd root

- Run the "chkconfig" command to set system boot options.
	chkconfig autoconfig.ipaddress off
	chkconfig autofs off
	chkconfig privileges off
	chkconfig routed off        (if using static route)
	chkconfig sdpd off
	chkconfig timed off         (if installing ITC ntpd)
	chkconfig timeslave off	    (if installing ITC ntpd)
	chkconfig nss_fasttrack off (if don't want running webserver)
	chkconfig webface off       (if don't want running webserver)

- Edit /etc/TIMEZONE and change last line to:

- If not present, create the file /etc/config/ifconfig-1.options
  and add the following line:
	netmask 0xFFFFFF00

- If you are in a building with multiple domains like Jordan Hall, 
  you should set a static route by creating the file 
  /etc/config/static-route.options and add the following line:
	$ROUTE $QUIET add default 128.143.<domain>.1
  Substitute the domain name from your machine name (the second field
  of the fully expressed name).  For example in the machine name
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU, "itc" is the domain name.

- For nameserver lookup, create the file /etc/resolv.conf and
  put the following in it:
	hostresorder bind local
	domain		<domain>.Virginia.EDU
  Substitute the domain name from your machine name (the second field
  of the fully expressed name).  For example in the machine name
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU, "itc" is the domain name.

- Edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file and modify the "hosts" line so it appears
  as follows:
	hosts:	dns files

- Set the machine name and IP address.
  Edit /etc/sys_id and change to hostname (full domain name).
	Ex: sgi.itc.Virginia.EDU

- Edit /etc/hosts and add your system and NFS server IP addresses and hostnames 
  and aliases.
       Ex:  sgi.itc.Virginia.EDU sgi.itc.virginia.edu sgi
    jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU jeeves.itc.virginia.edu jeeves
  The first line should match the name put in /etc/sys_id, the entry
  for jeeves is required if you NFS mount the SGI software from ITC.
  Make sure there is a line present in the file with "localhost" as follows:	localhost

- Reboot the system to enable configuration settings just made.
  From the Toolchest menu, select System, then Restart System. 
  When the system comes back up, login as root (superuser).

- If you upgraded an existing system which had to be repartitioned or have a
  clean install and you saved configuration files, you will now want to copy 
  back the system files you saved before you started this upgrade.

	Files copied to another disk:
		mount the second disk (see next item for instructions)

	From DAT tape:
		untar in /tmp 

	Ftp from another system:
		ftp files to /tmp

  You will need to edit some of the new system files using information from
  the saved files.  Some files can be copied over.  Compare old and new files 
  and either edit or replace as needed. User files and other saved directories
  can be copied back into place.

- If your system has more than one disk and you performed a clean install or
  repartioned your disk and saved the /etc/fstab file before upgrading, edit 
  /etc/fstab and append the lines for the additional drives.  
  For example, if you have a disk drive with SCSI ID 2 using the 
  internal SCSI Controller ID 0, and it is partitioned as an "optiondrive"
  with one filesystem in partition 7, the line may look like this:
	/dev/dsk/dks0d2s7 /p0 xfs rw,raw=/dev/rdsk/dks0d2s7 0 0

- If you want to NFS mount the ITC software for IRIX 6.x continue with 
  the following instructions, otherwise skip to the Security section.

- Make directories for NFS mounting software from ITC:
	cd /
	mkdir /common /sgi

  The following directories may already exist, if so, you can either
  delete them and create new empty ones to save space, or just mount
  the shared directory from our server over them:
        mkdir /usr/demos /usr/relnotes

- Make links required for proper software compatability: 
	ln -s /common/man /man
	ln -s /sgi/contrib /contrib
	ln -s /sgi/gnu /gnu
	ln -s /sgi/uva /uva
	ln -s /usr/bsd /usr/ucb
  For other optional packages look in /common and make the appropriate links.
  For example, if you wanted to use Mathematica 4.0:
	ln -s /common/math4.0 /math4.0

- Edit /etc/fstab and append the following lines:
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU:/common /common nfs ro,soft,intr,bg,timeo=3 0 0 
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU:/sgi /sgi nfs ro,soft,intr,bg,timeo=3 0 0 
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU:/sgi/6/share /usr/share nfs ro,soft,intr,bg,timeo=3 0 0
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU:/sgi/6/demos /usr/demos nfs ro,soft,intr,bg,timeo=3 0 0
  jeeves.itc.Virginia.EDU:/sgi/6/relnotes /usr/relnotes nfs ro,soft,intr,bg,timeo=3 0 0

- Edit /etc/profile and modify the PATH and MANPATH variables to include the
  directory paths of any optional packages.
  For example:

2. Security

- Edit /etc/passwd and copy back any entries from an old saved copy.
  If it's a new system, make sure that the second field of each account
  has a password string or an "*" to prevent anyone from logging in without 
  using a password.

- Edit the system security permissions.
  From the Desktop Toolchest menus select the following items:
		System Manager
			Security and Access Control
				Improve System Security

  A list showing current access status of your system will be displayed.
  Change any settings so the following options are set:
	Require root password:			Yes
	Disable Java/JavaScript for root:	No
	Remove NIS accounts:			Yes
	Use shadow password file:		Yes
	Require passwords at login:		Yes
	Disable the Visual Login Screen:	No
	Disable privileged users:		Yes
	Protect new users' files:		Yes
	Disable remote display:			Yes
	Disable IP Forwarding:			Yes
	Disable Outbox Web Server:		Yes

- Install ITC supplied security and time packages. You must have access
  to the /sgi/uva directory from jeeves.itc.virginia.edu to perform this step.
  If you performed the steps required to NFS mount ITC software in Section 1
  above then execute the following command at a Unix prompt:
	mount -a
  If you did not perform the steps to NFS mount ITC software then execute
  the following instead:
	cd /
	mkdir /uva
	mount jeeves.itc.virginia.edu:/sgi/uva /uva
  Now proceed with installing the security and time daemon packages.

	Open a Unix shell window and execute "inst".
	Select "1. from" and enter "/uva/admin/dist/itcsgi.tardist".
	Select "4. list" to view files that will be installed.
	Select "5. go" to install files.
	Select "14. quit" when done.
  After the files are installed:
	cd /etc/uva/tcp_wrapper
  Edit file "hosts.allow" and modify lines to give permission for access.
  For example:
	ALL: .virginia.edu .cstone.net
	sshd: .virginia.edu .cstone.net
	talkd: .virginia.edu
  This allows TCP/IP network connections for programs such as telnet, rlogin,
  ftp, slogin, etc., for anyone from the .virginia.edu computers and modems and
  from .cstone.net modem connections.  You can add or delete as you see fit.
  This will prevent anyone from other sites from being able to access your

- Turn off email relaying.  (These are examples, change to match reality)
	cd /etc
	mv sendmail.cf sendmail.cf.orig
	cp /uva/admin/dist/sendmail.cf .
	cd /usr/lib
	mv sendmail sendmail.orig
	cp /uva/admin/dist/sendmail .

3. Printers, Etc.

- See documentaion in /uva/admin/doc-all for instructions.  You can only
  access this if you have the /sgi/uva directory mounted from the ITC server
  jeeves.  See the instruction in Part C - Configuration, Section 1, for
	Printers	/uva/admin/doc-all/lpr and lptolpr
Reboot system, watch for any error messages during reboot and correct.

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